The term ‘dyspepsia’ is used to describe upper abdominal discomfort, usually related to food or alcohol intake.

Some possible origins and causes of dyspeptic symptoms

  • Esophageal: Dysphagia, achalasia, reflux esophagitis, hiatus hernia
  • Gastric: Gastritis, gastric ulcer, gastric carcinoma, gastric atrophy (elderly, pernicious anemia), bile reflux, obstruction of gastric outflow, pyloric stenosis
  • Small bowel: Duodenitis, duodenal ulcer
  • Colonic: Crohn’s disease, other large-bowel disease, intestinal infections
  • Other organs: Pancreatitis, hepatitis, gallbladder disease, hypoglycemia, diabetes mellitus, myocardial infarction, congestive heart failure
  • Other conditions: Stress, inappropriate diet, pregnancy, gastrectomy, dumping syndrome
  • Drugs: Aspirin, NSAIDs, oral corticosteroids, oral iron, antimuscarinics, cigarette smoking, excessive alcohol or caffeine consumption

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